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Happy 2008! | And Briefly About 2007 December 31, 2007

Posted by ramunas in breast cancer, BT Test, cancer genetics, DiaGenic, familial cancer, genetic testing, MammaPrint, Oncotype DX, PC Detect, prostate cancer, sporadic cancer, technology.
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(artwork by Hollis Sigler, 1948-2001)

Happy New Year 2008! Especially to all people, who encountered and battled cancer. Also for those who work to help fight this disease. Lot of advances in our understanding about this condition were achieved this year. It is too naive think that we could completely eliminate cancer, but it is very realistic to think that we can (and will able) to better predict and control this disease.

2007 will be known in history as a breakthrough in understanding of our (Humans: Homo sapiens sapientis) genome variation and enormous success in genome wide association studies (GWAS) for complex disorders ) cancer included (e.g. see my post about breast cancer).

2008 will be definitely an exciting journey through a highway (yet in a desert) of personalized genomics:

(from a movie Electroma, 2007)

I believe that individual molecular profiles will soon help to improve the early detection of cancer : over 50 novel DNA methylation-based biomarkers of breast cancer (by Orion Genomics) can replace mamography in a near future.

(courtesy of Biotage)

Also 37 gene expression markers from peripheral blood (by DiaGenic) will be offered in UK by Opaldia from 2008 (also covered by EyeOnDna, GeneticsAndHealth and MedGadget).

A new BT Test (by Provista Life Sciences) is designed to complement other testing methods to aid doctors in more accurately diagnosing breast cancer in its early stages, when life-saving treatment is most effective (via). The BT Test utilizes a proprietary algorithm to evaluate the levels and relationship of multiple, cancer associated protein biomarkers in blood serum. This data is coupled with a patient’s personal medical profile to generate a comprehensive report designed to assist healthcare providers in making an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer (via).

Two gene-expression assays, Oncotype DX and MammaPrint, have been developed and extensivelly reviewed in 2007, to determine the risk of breast cancer recurrence in patients with stage I or II node-negative breast cancer. In the future, these tests may be useful in determining the need for systemic adjuvant therapy in such patients (ref.).

Unexpectedly, some years ago alterations in mitochondrial DNA – our reminder about The Seven Daughters of Eve – have been suspected to play an important role in the development and progression of cancer. Several mutations have been identified in a wide variety of human tumors, including breast, colorectal, ovarian, gastric, hepatic and esophageal cancers, as well as hematological malignancies [ref.]. Some studies this year points to the importance of the variants in D-loop in familial breast cancer.

Genomic alterations in a new cancer marker – nucleophosmin (NPM1) (by Ipsogen) – has an enormous impact in the biological study, diagnosis, prognostic stratification, and monitoring of minimal residual disease of various lymphomas and leukemias (especially acute myeloid leukemia (AML)). The discovery of NPM1 gene alterations also represents the rationale basis for development of molecular targeted drugs.

Panacea Pharmaceuticals (hm, what a name…) has initiated manufacturing of PC Detectsm kits, the Company’s diagnostic test for prostate cancer, under GMP condition. It based on detection of Human Aspartyl (Asparaginyl) beta-Hydroxylase (HAAH), a cancer biomarker. HAAH has been established as an excellent biomarker for many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. The protein is typically undetectable in sera from cancer-free individuals, thus, an elevated serum protein level of HAAH is highly diagnostic for cancer. PC Detectsm is recommended as an adjunct to the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and the digital rectal examination (DRE), the currently recommended prostate cancer screening methods (ref.).

A booming field in micro-RNA and cancer field is expected to blossom in forthcoming years – microRNA-10b and breast cancer metastases is a recent example in Nature. It is truly biology’s Big Bang in our 21st century – The RNA revolution.

(photo from Economist)

Tumor immunology, with cancer immunoediting concept in ahead, T regulatory cells and advances in therapeutic cancer vaccines is an important future promise. Individualized cancer immunotherapy with RNA loaded dendritic cells (DC) vaccines (by Argos Therapeutics) is one of the opportunities and new generation of choices.